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City of Lodi

Annual Water Quality Report for 2002

(published April 2003)

Este informe contiene información muy importante sobre su agua potable. Tradúzcalo ó hable con alguien que lo entienda bien.

This is the City of Lodi’s 14th Annual Water Quality Report designed to keep you, the Citizens of Lodi, informed about your drinking water. The Water Quality Report summarizes testing performed on Lodi’s water supply by State certified laboratories. This report follows the “Consumer Confidence Report” (CCR) format required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of California.



In 1910 your City of Lodi Water Utility officially began operation along with the Electric Utility, and for 92 years, the water system has been owned by the Citizens of Lodi. Ninety-two years ago there were only two wells and a few miles of water mains. In 2002 there were 24 wells, over 210 miles of mains, a water tower and a 1-million-gallon storage tank. Lodi delivers water to approximately 23,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers.

Your Water Utility has 15 full-time employees, responsible for delivering safe, reliable drinking water at the most reasonable price possible. Water rates, system expansion projects, and significant purchases are authorized by the Lodi City Council, which serves as the water utility’s official regulatory body. Lodi City Council meetings are open to the public and are scheduled for the first and third Wednesdays of each month at 305 West Pine Street in Lodi at 7:00 p.m.



24 computer controlled wells, located throughout the City, provide high quality groundwater, our sole source of supply. The wells operate automatically on water pressure demand so that when water use increases, more wells come on line. A new well is planned for 2003-04 to keep up with water supply demands. However, the groundwater basin is being depleted. Lodi is actively participating in efforts to obtain surface water supplies.

Currently seven wells are fitted with emergency diesel-powered generators. (While these generators will help maintain water pressure during power outages, please refrain from using water during power outages to save the capacity for emergency uses, i.e., fire fighting.) The water delivered to your tap meets or is better than all federal and state water quality standards.



Lodi takes over 18 samples per week from throughout Lodi’s water distribution system for bacterial water quality.  In 2002 the City of Lodi’s drinking water met all bacteriological standards. 

The water may be periodically chlorinated as a proactive step to help keep the water system in compliance with strict bacteriological standards, however, Lodi’s water does not normally contain chlorine.  The City will make an effort to inform you in local papers before your water is chlorinated.  When necessary however, the drinking water may be chlorinated before you can be informed. 

Recently the City of Lodi was ordered to start full time chlorination on the water system. After discussing the issue in detail with State regulators, it was found that there was a misunderstanding on the results of City bacteriological testing and the order was rescinded.

The City is also following the development of U.S. EPA draft regulations which may require that nearly every groundwater system like Lodi’s chlorinate year-round.



In light of ongoing events in our country and abroad, security of utilities has been under increased scrutiny. Even though water utilities have not been targets of attacks, Lodi has stepped up security measures at City facilities. As with many other water utilities, Lodi is not disclosing details of security measures.


If you have any questions about this report or Lodi’s water quality,
 please contact:

Assistant Water/Wastewater Superintendent

Frank Beeler  • 1331 S. Ham Lane,  Lodi, CA  95242

Telephone: (209) 333-6740 • E-mail: Frank Beeler



In 2002, 5.422 billion gallons of water were pumped to meet Lodi’s water demands.  This is 19% less water use per person than in 1986. As Lodi’s and California’s populations increase, water conservation becomes an important part of meeting demands for fresh water.

The commitment of the citizens of Lodi to conserving water also helps conserve the electrical energy needed to pump the water to homes and businesses. To further conserve water, electrical energy, and wastewater treatment plant capacity, the City has instituted a rebate program for water saving devices such as low-flow toilets. See details below.

Your diligent water conservation practices, as in the past, are needed in 2003.  A report calculated dollar savings from water conservation to be far above the cost of the Water Conservation Program! Your water conservation efforts have also averted millions of dollars in capital costs, helping water rates stay as low as possible. The millions of dollars in capital cost savings can easily be lost if water conservation is not continued.

See Water Conservation Ordinance Summary

For more information or to report a water waste, call the Water Conservation office at 333-6829.

$ Water Conservation Rebate Program $

The City of Lodi is offering rebates on purchases of Water Conserving devices.  The rebates are good for installation at residential and commercial water customers within the City of Lodi. The rebates are given at the time of purchase and only at participating stores in Lodi. 

The rebates of  up to $44 are good for Ultra Low-Flow Toilets rated at 1.6 gallons per flush or less and must be replacing units using a higher volume of water per flush. Rebates of up to $100 are available for pressure assist PF/2 Ultra Low-Flow 1.6 gallon toilets. Additional rebates of 50% are available on Low-Flow Shower Heads, Insulated Hot Water Blankets, and Hose Bib Manual Timers for outside water hoses.

The program is funded by the Water, Wastewater and Electric Utilities. The rebates, given at the time of purchase, are only available at the following Lodi stores:

Ace Hardware •  827 West Kettleman Lane

Orchard Super Hardware • 360 South Cherokee Lane

Ferguson Enterprises, Inc • 1435 Academy Street

Contact the Water Conservation Office at (209) 333-6829 for more details.



To better understand the report, please note the description of terms and abbreviations

Terms and Abbreviations Used:

Public Health Goal (PHG): The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health.  PHGs are set by the California Environmental Protection Agency. 

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health.  MCLGs are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL): The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water.  Primary MCLs are set as close to the PHGs (or MCLGs) as is economically and technologically feasible. Secondary MCL’s are set to protect the odor, taste, and appearance of drinking water. 

Regulatory Action Level (AL): The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow.   

Primary Drinking Water Standard or PDWS: MCLs for contaminants that affect health along with their monitoring and reporting requirements, and water treatment requirements. 

Maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDL): The level of a disinfectant added for water treatment that may not be exceeded at the consumer’s tap. 

Maximum residual disinfectant level goal (MRDLG): The level of a disinfectant added for water treatment below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLs are set the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

mg/L or ppm: Milligrams per liter, or parts per million (one ppm equals a concentration of about one cup in a 60,000 gallon swimming pool).

ug/L or ppb: Micrograms per liter, or parts per billion (one ppb equals about 4.5 drops in a 60,000 gallon swimming pool).  

ppt: Parts per trillion (one ppt equals less than 1/200 of a drop in a 60,000 gallon swimming pool).

pCi/L: Picocuries per liter (a measurement of radiation).

NA: Not Applicable.     

ND: Not Detected at measurable amounts for reporting purposes.

Grains/gal: Grains per gallon. A hardness measurement often used for softeners and dishwashers.  (17.1 mg/L = 1 grain/gal). 

umhos/cm: Micromhos per centimeter (a measurement of conductance).

<  Means less than the amount shown.

>  Means more than the amount shown.


City of Lodi Annual Water Quality Report for 2002
(published April 2003)




Regulated Inorganic    Average Range of PHG  
Chemicals   of Lodi Individual or Major sources in
*2000-2002 Data MCL Wells Detections (MCLG) Drinking water

Arsenic, ug/L

50 3.5 7.7-ND NA Erosion of natural deposits (see message below)
Barium, mg/L 1 0.062 0.23-ND -2 Erosion of natural deposits
Fluoride, mg/L 1.4 0.14 0.24-ND 1 Erosion of natural deposits
Nitrate as NO3 , mg/L 45 9.4 36-ND 45 Leaching from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks and sewage; erosion of natural deposits (see below)
Bacterial Water Quality     Monthly PHG  
Coliform Bacteria   Total High-Low or Major sources in
2002 Data  MCL Positive Range (MCLG) Drinking water
Total Coliform, Positive 5%/month 0.80% 2.56 % - 0% 0 Naturally present in the environment
Fecal Coliform & E. coli >1 /month 1 Jan-00 0 Human and animal fecal waste 
Radioactivity,   Average Range of PHG  
pico Curies per Liter   of Lodi Individual or Major sources in
*1999-2002 Data MCL Wells Detections (MCLG) Drinking water
Gross Alpha, pCi/L 15 5.12 15.15-0.96 0 Erosion of natural deposits
Radon, pCi/L NA 378 568-268 NA Erosion of natural deposits (See message below)
Uranium, pCi/L 20 5.81 11.7-2.57 NA Erosion of natural deposits
Organic Chemicals with at least one confirmed detection in an operational City Well  
Regulated   Average Range of PHG    
Organic Chemicals   of Lodi Individual or Major sources in  
2002 Data MCL Wells Detections (MCLG) Drinking water  Comments:
Tetrachloroethylene 5 0.04 1.1** - ND 0.06 Discharge from factories, dry cleaners, and auto shops (metal degreaser) Found in Wells # 6R, 8 & 12 at levels below the MCL.
(PCE), ppb
1,1-Dichloroethylene       (1,1-DCE), ppb 6 0.02 0.73**-ND 10 Discharge from industries.  Local ground contamination from businesses using the chemical. Only in Well # 2 at  levels below the MCL

 (TCE), ppb

5 0.12 2.5**-ND 0.8 Discharge from industries.  Local ground contamination from businesses using the chemical.  Breakdown product of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Found in Wells # 2, 12 &  24 at levels below the MCL.
Dibromochloropropane  (DBCP), ppt 200 41 350**-ND 1.7 Banned nematocide that may still be present in soils due to runoff/leaching from former use on vineyards. See DBCP Update
Secondary Standards   Average Range of   Secondary Standards   Average
Aesthetic Purposes (see note) Secondary of Lodi Individual   Aesthetic Purposes (see note) Secondary of
*2000-2002 Data MCL Wells Detections   *2000-2002 Data MCL All Wells
Chloride, mg/L 500 16 55-2.8   Sulfate, mg/L 500 15
Color-Units 15 1.7 5-ND   Total Dissolved Solids, mg/L 1000 254
Specific Conductance, umhos/cm 1600 358 800-110   Turbidity, NTU Units 5 0.14
Note: Aesthetic problems are only associated with taste, smell, and other problems which are not a health risk.
Lead & Copper Rule AL Average Range of # Samples Exceeding PHG  
Customer Tap Monitoring (Action 90th Individual AL  (of 52 samples or Major sources in
2000 Data  Level) Percentile Detections from 52 sites) (MCLG) Drinking Water
Lead, 90th %, ug/L 15 <5.0 5.6-ND 0 2 Internal erosion of household plumbing
Copper, 90th %, mg/L 1.3 0.33 0.41-ND 0 0.17 systems; erosion of natural deposits
Other non-regulated water constituents found in your water (for your information only)    
Non-regulated water Average of Range of   Non-regulated water Average of Range of
constituents, *2000-2002 Data Lodi Wells Detections   constituents, *2000-2002 Data Lodi Wells Detections
Total Hardness, as mg/L 129 330-32   Potassium, mg/L 6.7 12-2.3
Total Hardness, as grains/gal. 7.6 19-1.9   Alkalinity (bicarbonate), mg/L 167 340-57
Calcium, mg/L 29 75-6.3   pH, in pH units 7.4 7.8-7.0
Sodium, mg/L 21 52-7.2   Magnesium, mg/L 14 34-3.9
* Regulations call for monitoring of some constituents less than once per year because the concentrations of these constituents do not change frequently.  Therefore, some of our data, although representative, are more than one year old. 
** Averages are used for compliance determination due to the variable nature of individual analyses, and due the fact that any associated theoretical risks are not acute, but theoretically only after years of exposure to levels above MCLs.




• Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants.  The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk.  More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (1-800-426-4791).

• Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population.  Immuno-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections.  These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers.  USEPA/Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines on appropriate means to lesson the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (1-800-426-4791).

• The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and wells.  As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and, in some cases, radioactive material, and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity.

• Contaminants that may be present in source water include:

• Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, that may come from sewage treatment plant,  septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife.

• Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals,      that can be naturally-occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming.

• Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, and residential uses.

• Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, that are byproducts of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater  runoff, and septic systems.

• Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities.

In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, USEPA and the California Department of Health Services (Department) prescribe regulations that limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Department regulations also establish limits for contaminants in bottled water that must provide the same protection for public health.


• Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that you can’t see, taste, or smell.  It is found throughout the U.S.  Radon can move up through the ground and into a home through cracks and holes in the foundation.  Radon can build up to high levels in all types of homes. Radon can also get into indoor air when released from tap water from showering, washing dishes, and other household activities.  Compared to radon entering the home through soil, radon entering the home through tap water will in most cases be a small source of radon in indoor air.  Radon is a known human carcinogen.  Breathing air-containing radon can lead to lung cancer. Drinking water containing radon may also cause increased risk of stomach cancer.  If you are concerned about radon in your home, test the air in your home.  Testing is inexpensive and easy.  Fix your home if the level of radon in your air is 4 picocuries per liter of air (pCi/L) or higher.  There are simple ways to fix a radon problem that aren’t too costly.  For additional information, call your State radon program or call EPA’s Radon Hotline (1-800-SOS-RADON).


ARSENIC: After a long debate, the drinking water standard for Arsenic will be lowered from 50 ppb (parts per billion) to 10 ppb. The following message is required for systems that have some sources containing Arsenic below the new standard of 10 ppb, but over half (5 ppb). The average in Lodi’s wells is 3.5 ppb and the highest well is 7.7 ppb.

While your drinking water meets the current standard for arsenic, it does contain low levels of arsenic. The standard balances the current understanding of arsenic’s possible health effects against the costs of removing arsenic from drinking water. The California Department of Health Services continues to research the health effects of low levels of arsenic, which is a mineral known to cause cancer in humans at high concentrations and is linked to other health effects such as skin damage and circulatory problems.


NITRATE: The following message is required for systems that have some sources containing Nitrate below the standard of 45 ppm (as NO3), but over half (23 ppm) of the standard. The average of Lodi’s wells is 9.4 ppm and the highest well is 36 ppm.

Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 45 mg/L is a health risk for infants of less than six months of age. Such nitrate levels in drinking water can interfere with the capacity of the infant’s blood to carry oxygen, resulting in a serious illness; symptoms include shortness of breath and blueness of the skin. Nitrate levels above 45 mg/L may also affect the ability of the blood to carry oxygen in other individuals, such as pregnant women and those with certain specific enzyme deficiencies. If you are caring for an infant, or you are pregnant, you should ask advice from your health care provider.


DBCP (Dibromochloropropane) UPDATE

DBCP was used by area farmers to kill nematodes in vineyards.  DBCP was banned in California in 1977, but is still present in trace levels in some groundwater. The City of Lodi used 24 wells to provide drinking water in 2002. The wells are rotated so over the course of time, water being delivered is a blend from these wells. Ten of Lodi’s wells had no detectable DBCP.  Six wells have filters to remove DBCP. The remaining eight meet State and Federal standards, but have trace amounts of DBCP.  The result is that the people of Lodi are being served water below the DBCP level deemed safe by the U.S. EPA and the State of California.

DBCP has been shown to increase cancer nodules in rats and mice when exposed to very high levels over their lifetimes. In theory these chemicals may also increase the risk of cancer in humans. Drinking water standards are set to reduce this risk and include a safety factor for the general population and take into account the cost and practicality of removing the particular contaminant. While there are scientists who say this theory is not justifiable, there are also those who feel that the standards do not protect sub-groups, such as children.

As a counterpoint, this theoretical risk of cancer has also been applied to many chemicals that occur in everyday foods. When chemicals that are found in everyday foods are tested in the same way, some scientists have found that many foods have a greater theoretical cancer hazard than DBCP in drinking water.

For more info, see the web site: http://potency. berkeley.edu/text/lehr.html (to better understand, the above web site, DBCP levels in Lodi’s water would have a HERP% of approximately 0.0005).

The U.S. EPA and State of California drinking water standard for DBCP has been set at 0.2 ppb to reduce the theoretical risk of cancer. This theoretical risk is based on lifetime (70 years) exposure and drinking about two quarts of water every day. The limit of 0.2 ppb equals one drop in 66,000 gallons of water. It would take over 350 years to drink 66,000 gallons of water at 2 quarts/day. Water meeting this standard is considered safe with respect to DBCP by the U.S. EPA and State of California Department of Health Services.

In 1996 the City settled a lawsuit against DBCP manufacturers, who have already paid the City for a large portion of Lodi’s costs related to DBCP treatment. The DBCP manufacturers will continue to pay a large portion of the City’s DBCP related costs for the settlement’s 40-year life.



MTBE (Methyl-Tert-Butyl-Ether) is a controversial additive to gasoline that has been in the news the past few years.  One of the main concerns with MTBE is the threat of leaking from service stations into the groundwater. Monitoring of City wells has NOT detected any traces of MTBE to date.

The City has a program of monitoring all City wells for MTBE. Wells that are at greater risk (i.e., closer to gasoline stations) are monitored more frequently.



The City is pursuing a resolution to a contamination problem in the north and central downtown Lodi area. While NO operating wells are out of compliance with any drinking water standards, there are detected amounts of PCE (Tetrachloroethylene) and TCE (Trichloroethylene) in soils and shallow groundwater. The City continues to retain legal and engineering assistance to aid in development of funding and work towards clean-up and containment of these dry cleaning and industrial solvents before contamination further spreads to put the City’s operating drinking water wells out of service. Activities in the past year have included drilling monitoring wells throughout the contamination area. These monitoring wells will be used to test shallow groundwater and soils to further determine the extent of the contamination and design clean-up facilities.



Experience a water quality problem?


-Many times, water quality problems in the home can be traced to the hot water heater, the plastic water lines under the sink to faucets, or because sewer gases from the drain are being smelled.

-Other times there can be occasional water quality problems associated with the aesthetic quality of your water or sand, which may be originating from water supply mains

-Set the hot water heater at the proper temperature, too hot can create heavier scaling problems, and not warm enough can allow bacteria to grow.  Also remember, if you have a home treatment system, change the filter regularly.

-If you ever experience trouble with the quality of your water, and you do not think it is a problem with your on-site plumbing, please call the Water/Wastewater Division at 368-5735 or 333-6740.


Drinking water Source Assessment

“An assessment of the drinking water sources for the City of Lodi’s water system was completed in February 2003. The sources are considered most vulnerable to the following activities: gas stations (current and historic), chemical/petroleum processing/storage, metal plating/finishing/fabricating, plastic/synthetics producers, dry cleaners, known contaminant plumes, sewer collection systems, fleet/truck/bus terminals, machine shops, utility stations-maintenance areas, agricultural drainage, and photo processing/printing.”

“A copy of the completed assessment is available at the Public Works Department, City of Lodi, 1331 South Ham Lane, Lodi, CA 95242. You may request that a copy be sent to you by contacting Fran E. Forkas at (209) 333-6740. A copy of the complete assessment is also available at the Department of Health Services, Drinking Water Field Operations Branch, Stockton District Office, 31 E Channel Street, Room 270, Stockton, California 95202. You may also request that a copy be sent to you by contacting Joseph O. Spano, District Engineer, at (209) 948-7696.”